The convoy travelled up to 32 mph (51 km/h),[11] and the schedule was for 18 mph (29 km/h)[21]:111 to average 15 mph (24 km/h). [5]:6,10, In addition to engineer and quartermaster units; the convoy had 2 truck companies of the 433rd Motor Supply Train;[5]:6 a medical unit with surgeon, medical, and dental officers; and a Field Artillery Detachment which provided the Maxwell crawler tractor[13] operated by a civilian. [24], Convoy delays required extra encampments at Sewickley, Pennsylvania ( 11/12 July); Gothenburg, Nebraska ( 2/3 August); and Ogallala, Nebraska (5/6); which delayed arrival at Evanston, Wyoming, to 16 August instead of the scheduled 13 August. Lt. Col. Charles W. McClure and Capt. More than 50 historic military vehicles will be on display Aug. 20 at Cantigny Park as part of the Transcontinental Motor Convoy, sponsored by the Military Vehicle Preservation Association. [11] In addition to 230 road incidents[12] (stops for adjustments, extrications, breakdowns, & accidents) resulting in 9 vehicles retiring,[2] the convoy of "24 expeditionary officers, 15 War Department staff observation officers, and 258 enlisted men" had 21 injured en route who did not complete the trip. As the largest and most heavily laden vehicle it was most likely to get stuck and the crawler and the engineers would be readily at hand to extract it. The convoy traveled from Washington, D.C., to San Francisco in 62 days. On Wednesday, August 28, 2019 the MVPA will travel through Kearney as they retrace the original 1919 US Army’s First Transcontinental Motor Convoy route, on the famed Lincoln Highway. 42, no. Eisenhower also dedicated much of his report to a detailed summary of road conditions in each of the states that the convoy traversed, followed by general observations on proper road construction and maintenance, observing that some of the good roads were too narrow and some formerly excellent roads had been allowed to deteriorate without maintenance, stating "In such cases it seems evident that a very small amount of money spent at the proper time would have kept the road in good condition."[31]. As an observer for the War Department, Lt. Col. Eisenhower learned first-hand of the difficulties faced in traveling great distances on roads that were impassable, and that resulted in frequent breakdowns of the military vehicles. Of the transport trucks, the FWD proved the most satisfactory and the Garford the least, the former due to its mechanical reliability and all wheel drive and the latter due to a fragile cooling system, though the Standard B "Liberty" trucks were actually the most towed trucks in the convoy. The expedition consisted of 81 motorized Army vehicles that crossed the United States from Washington, DC, to San Francisco, a venture covering a distance of 3,251 miles in 62 days. The MVPA convoy will leave Washington, D.C., on June 13 and plans to … Site of the United States WWI Centennial Commission, and the Doughboy Foundation, building the National WWI Memorial in Washington, D.C. "Ike and 'The Great Truck Train'--1919" by John E. Wickman, Kansas History, Volume 13, August 1990, Number 3, page 139. In western Wyoming Eisenhower and a companion convinced the convoy that an Indian attack was imminent. Their goal was 6000 recruits. The objectives were: Military Convoy Retraces Historic Route through Cedar Rapids On Sunday, June 21, a convoy retracing the 1919 transit of military vehicles on the Lincoln Highway pulled into Cedar Rapids, Iowa for the night. In addition to transporting New York's Medal of Joan of Arc[27] for San Francisco's Palace of Fine Arts,[28] the convoy had four objectives; and Ordnance Department[5] and Tank Corps observers[1] completed their reports in October. “First Transcontinental Military Convoy Over Lincoln Highway.” The Lancaster Daily Intelligencer, 5 July 1919… In the summer of 1919, a young Lieutenant Colonel named Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the first Army transcontinental motor convoy. These early experiences influenced his later decisions concerning the building of the interstate highway system during his presidential administration. Army recruiters were actively trying to attract enlistments into the Quartermaster's Corps along the route of the 1919 Motor Transport Corps Transcontinental Convoy. These early experiences influenced his later decisions concerning the building of the interstate highway system during his presidential administration. Lt. Jackson also noted "The maintenance work was considerably hampered by the necessity of carrying spare parts for so many different makes of trucks" and "better tools should be furnished to the mechanics". The route the convoy would take was mostly along the Lincoln Highway, the first major transcontinental motor route. The 1919 convoy included 81 vehicles, 37 officers and 258 enlisted men. Moody (Ordnance Department, USA, Tank, Tractor & Trailer Division), "Report on First Transcontinental Motor Convoy," October 31, 1919. “Army Truck is Try-Out For Equipment.” The South Bend News Times, 20 July 1919, p. 10. The convoy was to test the mobility of the military during wartime conditions. [5]:24, In the course of its journey, the convoy broke and repaired[19] dozens of wooden bridges[2]:10 (14 in Wyoming alone) [20] and "practically" all roadways were unpaved from Illinois through Nevada. ", This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 17:06. Most of the failures that were not caused by operator error (primarily poor lubrication and over-revving on downgrades) were due to the effects of the constant dust, vibration and pounding on the carburetors, ignition systems, bushings, fasteners and bearings. On Aug. 8, 1919, young Lt. Col. Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in Cheyenne with a long line of military cars, trucks and motorcycles. Some of the participants also posted updates. The engineers were responsible for inspecting each bridge as the convoy came to it. [6], The Signal Corps filmed convoy events;[7] and the civilians of the Goodyear band were transported from Chicago in one of the trucks. Jackson (Ordnance Observer) to Col. L.B. One of … "Ike's Road Trip" by Kevin L. Cook, The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Spring 2001, pp 68-7. When the generals and politicians fin- ished talking at Zero Milestone near the White House on July 7, 1919… The convoy was to test the mobility of the military during wartime conditions. As an observer for the War Department, Lt. Col. Eisenhower learned first-hand of the difficulties faced in traveling great distances on roads that were impassable and resulted in frequent breakdowns of the military vehicles. The four "light delivery trucks" were 3/4 ton Dodges and the remainder were 3 ton Class B Standardized Military "Liberty" trucks. [DDE's Records as President, President's Personal File, Box 967, 1075 Greany Maj. William C.; NAID #1055071], Report, "Principal Facts Concerning the First Transcontinental Army Motor Transport Expedition, Washington to San Francisco, July 7 to September 6, 1919." [18] Six vehicles were chosen to evaluate Dixon's Graphite Grease to see if it provided worthwhile benefits. [5]:11 The 5th Engineers' Company E[5]:7 of 2 officers and 20 men headed the main body with the artillery's 5​1⁄2 ton Mack truck carrying a 5-ton Maxwell tractor (22,450 lbs total) in the lead followed by the machine shop and blacksmith shop trucks, and the Quartermaster Corps' Service Park Unit 595 of 1 officer and 43 men brought up the rear ("often separated from the main body" while servicing disabled vehicles). Lt. Jackson, the Ordnance Department Observer, submitted a detailed report on the performance of all of the convoy's vehicles. Forgoing a rest day originally scheduled for the day after arriving in Oakland, the convoy instead ferried to San Francisco[26] the next morning 6 days behind schedule and parked at the Presidio of San Francisco.[5]:4. of prominent citizens, 3 Fire Companies and two bands, furnished by the Chamber of Commerce and the Goodrich Company." Members of the Military Vehicle Preservation Association will drive vintage and modern trucks following the route of the old Lincoln Highway, now U.S. 30, to mark the pioneering trek’s 90th anniversary. In the summer of 1919, a young Lieutenant Colonel named Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the first Army transcontinental motor convoy. It left Washington D.C. on July 7 and arrived in San Francisco on Sept. 6, 1919. For example, the log entry for 18 July reads (in part) "At 8:00 A. M. halted by request in Churubusco, Ind for 10 min., while refreshments were served by local Red Cross Canteen Service. Finally, the Maxwell and Militor tractors were praised for their overall reliability and mechanical superiority, as the trip could not have been completed without them. In the summer of 1919, a young Lieutenant Colonel named Dwight D. Eisenhower participated in the first Army transcontinental motor convoy. At many stops along the way the convoy was escorted into town by local dignitaries and feted with church bells, parades, concerts, picnics, dances and banquets. The other motorcycles were used to carry messages up and down the length of the convoy. The Military Vehicle Preservation Association’s 100th anniversary recreation of the 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy will pass through Fremont Tuesday morning. INDUSTRY -- In 1919, the U.S. Army drove a convoy of motorized vehicles across the country for the first time, traveling mainly along the fledgling Lincoln Highway from Washington, D.C., to … “Billion Urged For National Road System.” Oakland Tribune, 7 September 1919, p. 4. The 1919 Motor Transport Corps Convoy Promotes Good Roads In the summer of 1919, the United States Army Motor Transport Corps (MTC) deployed a convoy They had to stop a telegram being sent to the War Office reporting an encounter with hostile Indians. The Cadillac and Dodge passenger cars and light trucks were found to be generally satisfactory, though the hood latches on the Dodge proved insufficiently durable. The expedition was manned by 24 officers and 258 enlisted men. ), "Newspaper Clippings re the 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy", https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=UdslAAAAIBAJ&sjid=ZvwFAAAAIBAJ&pg=5272,3768233&dq=gettysburg+1919+convoy&hl=en, "Ike's Interstates at 50: Anniversary of the Highway System Recalls Eisenhower's Role as Catalyst", "The Mystery of the Maxwell Crawler Tractor", "HD Stock Video Footage - Soldiers with the 1919 U.S. Army Motor Transport convoy use Holt tractor to assist trucks mired down in Nebraska", "HD Stock Video Footage - Trucks of the 1919 U.S. Army Motor Transport convoy encounter difficulties negotiating dirt roads in Nebraska", https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=XEkzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=te4HAAAAIBAJ&pg=4806,5289486&dq=1919+convoy+nevada&hl=en, "Dusty Doughboys on the Lincoln Highway: The 1919 Army Convoy in Iowa", "Army Motor Transport to Cross the Continent", "HD Stock Video Footage - U.S. Army motor transport convoy in Oakland and San Francisco after their trip across America in 1919", http://www.lincoln-highway-museum.org/NPS/03-NPS-100-75.jpg, Online documents available from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1919_Motor_Transport_Corps_convoy&oldid=985733701, 20th-century history of the United States Army, Articles needing more detailed references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Encourage "construction of through-route and transcontinental highways". 9 a.m. - 4:45 p.m., August - May Commemorative Program, "A California Dinner in Honor of the Officers and Men Who Made up the First Transcontinental Convoy of the Motor Transport Corps, U.S. Army over the Lincoln Highway, Washington to San Francisco, July 7 - September 7, 1919" [U.S. Army, Transport Corps, Transcontinental Convoy: Records, 1919, Box 1; NAID #12165975], Memorandum from Lt. Col. Dwight D. Eisenhower to the Chief, Motor Transport Corps, with attached report on the Trans-Continental Trip, November 3, 1919. The officers and men of the Engineer, Medical and Ordinance (maintenance) detachments were described as more experienced and better trained. The 1919 convoy by the Army's young Motor Transport Corps took 62 days, from July 7 to September 6. The expedition was manned by 24 officers and 258 enlisted men. This is the association’s fifth convoy and the second one to retrace the 1919 military convoy route. In addition to transporting New York's Medal of Joan of Arc for San Francisco's Palace of Fine Arts, the convoy had four objectives; and Ordnance Department and Tank Corps observers completed their reports in October. The soldiers had spent 11 hours on the road that day, traveling from Kimball, Neb., to Cheyenne. Public Domain. 1919 U.S. Army Convoy. [1]:4 Dust was a constant problem. Abilene, KS 67410 He noted that the convoy commander was not given time to train his men and recommended that "...the M.T.C. The Transcontinental Motor Truck Convoy entered the city on the Lincoln Highway during an evening thunderstorm. Sentinels were posted that night, but when Ike and friend exchanged warrior yelps outside the perimeter a young officer on guard discharged his weapon. [5][14] The 81 total vehicles and trailers included "34 heavy cargo trucks, 4 light delivery trucks", 2 mobile machine shops, 1 blacksmith shop, and 1 wrecking truck,[15] actually a Millitor "Artillery Wheeled Tractor"[16] that once towed 9 trucks at once and was equipped with a power winch. [5]:18,23 Additional vehicle manufacturers included Cadillac, Dodge, F.W.D., Garford, Harley-Davidson & Indian (motorcycles), Liberty (trucks & a 2-wheel kitchen cart), Mack, Packard, Riker, Standardized, Trailmobile (two 4-wheel kitchen trailers), and White. Photo Credit: Eisenhower Presidential Library The 1919 U.S. Army Convoy In 1919, the U.S. Army Convoy of 72 vehicles and 297 men traveled across the United States to test roads and military mobility. [8] The Publicity Officer (Lt William B Doron)[9] rode with Ostermann 2–10 days ahead of the main body,[10] while the Recruiting Officer (Capt Murphy) was 1–2 days ahead, and the Cook and Mess units were several hours ahead,[11] Two motorcycles scouted about ​1⁄2 hour ahead to report conditions and place markers. [5]:4 An extra travel day on "mining roads"[25] was used between Ely and Austin, Nevada; where the convoy arrived on the 27th (v. 20th), 348 mi (560 km) short of the scheduled point for the 27th (Sacramento). Dealers en route supplied gasoline and tires to the convoy and the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company provided 2 trucks (Packard & White, each 2-ton) fitted with "giant cord pneumatic" tires that carried spare standard tires. [4] Official observers included those from the Air Service, A.S.A.P.,[specify] Coast and Field Artillery, Medical Corps, Ordnance, Signal Corps and Tank Corps including the then Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Dwight D. F. Kelley, Reception Comm. Trucks, jeeps and cars driven by members of the Military Vehicle Preservation Association follow Grant Line Road through Tracy on Saturday morning as they retrace the cross-country route of a historic convoy in 1919. More than 50 historical military vehicles will travel the entire route from Washington to … Inexperience caused a great deal of unnecessary delays and breakdowns in the early going. 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