Average lifespan of 50-70 years, although they do sometimes live more than 100 years. It grows faster and taller than most any other local deciduous species of trees. Its life span can reach over 100 years. Its leaves, more broad than long, are slightly smaller and more coarsely toothed than the typical variety. See Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 34b – Form of tree is tall, wide, open — Plains Cottonwood; Description. monilifera) is absent in the Midwest (with the possible exception of far western Iowa and Missouri); it is a subspecies of eastern cottonwood that has leaves with 10—30 teeth, and only 1—2 glands where the leaf-stem meets the twig. Plains Cottonwood Trees (populus deltoides): the greenish-yellow bark of the young tree becomes rough and dark gray as it gets older. Unlike most other poplar species, Cottonwood does not reproduce by root suckers and does not occur naturally in dense, pure clonal colonies. Perfect for everyone from young students to professional arborists. Note: All comments are moderated before posting to keep the riff-raff out. Wide, triangular shaped green leaves turn yellow in the fall. Usually at the base of the leaf near the stalk are 2 small glands. Funding provided by the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund as recommended by the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources. Hardy to -40°F Maximum Elevation: 7,000 Feet Wyoming designated the plains cottonwood as official state tree in 1947. Yes - OR - Do the leaves not have bumps where the leaf BLADE and PETIOLE meet? eastern cottonwood. A massive tree of floodplains, stream valleys and lakeshores, it can also establish on drier upland soils where there is adequate subsurface moisture to see it through droughts. Buds are large, round and conical with a sharp point, the terminal bud up to ¾ inch, reddish or yellowish brown and shiny from a sticky, non-aromatic resinous coating. Ponderosa Pine - … Neither the flowers nor the fruit are ornamentally significant. Bark is light-grey, almost silver in color and deeply furrowed on mature trees. Eastern cottonwood Foliage Conservation status Least Concern Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Malpighiales Family: Salicaceae Genus: Populus Section: Populus sect. Photos courtesy Peter M. Dziuk taken in Anoka and Ramsey counties, and in North Dakota. The plains cottonwood is the western subspecies of the Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides). Cottonwood (Poplar) The cottonwood—also known as the poplar—is a tall tree with a spreading crown, named for its cotton-like seeds. Their wide-spreading roots are helpful in reducing erosion and slowing floodwater runoff. However, the fruit can be messy in the landscape and may require occasional clean-up. 3-5 veins meet at leaf base. Your email address: (required) Female catkins 3–12 cm long; stigmas 2. Male catkins are 2 to 4½ inches long with tiers of red stamens. monilifera) is a variety the Eastern cottonwood, monilifera describing the linear necklace-like strand of seed pods. Bark is smooth and thin, creamy or greenish gray on younger branches becoming brownish to dark gray, thick and deeply ridged and furrowed on the trunk. It is hardy to zone (UK) 2. Your Name: wislizeni limited to the southwestern US; subsp. One of the common features of all types of cottonwood trees is the fluffy cotton-like strands that appear every June. An email address is required, but will not be posted—it will only be used for information exchange between the 2 of us (if needed) and will never be given to a 3rd party without your express permission. Eckenw. The only obvious distinction is that eastern trees often have larger leaves, sometimes over 7 inches in leaf blade length. Populus L. – cottonwood Species: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall – eastern cottonwood Subspecies: Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall ssp. petiolate. This tree grows from the eastern plains to 6500 feet (2000 m) in elevation, and possibly higher in canyons of the eastern slope of Colorado. The wood is not durable when exposed to soil and other moist conditions. A selection of Plains Cottonwood with a straight central leader and a pyramidal habit that matures to a broad rounded form. Thanks for your understanding. Size: 65 to 130 feet. It is in flower from March to April, and the seeds ripen from May to June. In urban plantings it is a fast growing species that can quickly dwarf the landscape though its weak, brittle wood predisposes it to wind breakage and the copious amounts of cottony wind dispersed seeds can quickly clog up window screens, air conditioner coils and lawnmower filters. plains cottonwood Populus deltoides ssp. This is also the state tree of Nebraska, Wyoming, and Kansas. Map of native plant purveyors in the upper midwest. Other massive 5 to 6-ft driver bottom specimens are not uncommon. Leaf: Triangular, glossy. Trees, insects and diseases of Canada's forests, C2 , NA2, 1 or 2 glands at the base of the leaf blade, Neoformed leaves broadly ovate, hairy when unfolding, Base more rounded than eastern cottonwood, 5–15 rounded teeth per side, no teeth on the tip or near the petiole, Teeth smaller and more numerous on neoformed leaves, Lateral leaf buds slightly smaller, diverging from the twig, Leaf scars large, 3-lobed, with eyelash-like hairs at juncture of bud and scar, Narrow ridges extend down from either side of the bud, Smooth, with age becoming deeply furrowed, Yellowish-grey, with age becoming dark grey, Often divided near the ground into a few large, wide-spreading limbs, Frequently planted on the prairies for shelterbelts, In open stands with other species; sometimes forms pure stands. Cottonwoods are related to poplars and aspens, with which they share the same shaking, shimmering leaves. Tree 5–20 m with ascending branches. Great Plains cottonwood (P. sargentii), of North America, has thick coarse-toothed leaves. Leaves are alternate and simple with a mostly flat leaf stalk, blade is broadly triangular (deltoid), 2 to 4 inches long and up to 4¼ inches wide, the base mostly flat across, the corner angles rounded with coarse, rounded teeth, and tapered to an abrupt pointed tip. French name: Peuplier deltoïde de l'Ouest Taxonomic Serial Number: 22447 22449 [syn. P. sargentii Dode] C2 , NA2 Leaf Arrangement. eastern cottonwood, plains cottonwood, common cottonwood, alamo, carolina poplar, necklace poplar Family. Leaves: The leaves of a black cottonwood tree grow alternately in a pale green shade, with a leaf size of 2-2.5 inches in length and width. Plains Cottonwood Facts. It is a plains cottonwood. Female catkins are 2½ to 4¼ inches long with yellowish stigmas on top of a naked, round green ovary. The plains cottonwood is a Colorado native tree but, while it grows in our area, it’s considered native to the lower elevations of the state and is typically found in elevations between 3,500 to 6,500 feet. It is a Fremont cottonwood. The fruits split open when ripe and cotton-like material comes out carrying the seeds. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwalder – plains cottonwood A broad, irregularly rounded canopy with coarse, spreading branches. There are 3 recognized subspecies in North America: subsp. Male and female flowers are on separate trees (dioecious) in hanging clusters (catkins) from the leaf axils of 1 year old branches. Attempts to utilize these hybrids in intensive biomass plantations, both here a abroad, have been hindered with issues like Cottonwood leaf beetle outbreaks and bacterial canker diseases. Twigs are greenish and smooth turning a creamy yellow brown the second year. P. deltoid) cottonwood is the Wyoming State Tree. Cottonwood trees are a common street tree and are the largest native broadleaf trees in Colorado. Yes. The Fremont Cottonwood, also known as the Western Cottonwood or the Rio Grande Cottonwood, Populus fremontii, occurs in California east to Utah and Arizona and south into northwest Mexico. All State Trees. Get the Full-Color Pocket Field Guide. occidentalis Rydb.] Margins have large rounded to pointed teeth. The Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides var. Fruits is a green, egg-shaped capsule on the long pendulous catkins, splitting into three or four parts when mature releasing copious amounts of cottony seeds to the winds. Colorado's major tree species include bristlecone pine, Colorado blue spruce, Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, limber pine, lodgepole pine, narrowleaf cottonwood, quaking aspen, piñon pine, plains cottonwood, ponderosa pine, Rocky Mountain juniper, subalpine fir and white fir. Both leaf surfaces are smooth, the upper bright green, the lower only slightly less so. It is used for rough construction lumber, temporary fence posts, corral poles, fuel, veneer, boxes, plywood, excelsior, and wood pulp (Taylor, 2001) . Rich green, wide, triangular- shaped leaves turn … See the glossary for icon descriptions. The leaves may be triangular or ovate in shape, with a fine serration on the borders. P. deltoides var. Leaf Attachment. Have you seen this plant in Minnesota, or have any other comments about it? For info on subjects other than plant identification (gardening, invasive species control, edible plants, etc. Web design and content copyright © 2006-2020 MinnesotaWildflowers.info. Cottonwood trees are huge deciduous trees that have large green leaves and thick foliage. U.S. Weed Information; Populus deltoides . monilifera (Ait.) wislizeni Rio Grande cottonwood Legal Status. Also, the edge (margin) of the latter is deeply notched (crenelated), while that of the angustifolia is less so, and the balsamifera's is smooth. The Plains cottonwood is also the largest broadleaf tree of Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming. As it ages, the bark becomes rough. Large beautiful plains cottonwood trees in park immediately to east of grain elevator on highway 28. Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund, part shade, sun; most woods, floodplains, lowland forest along lakes and streams. Plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides ssp. Further west (Minnesota south to eastern Texas), the subspecies P. d. monilifera (plains cottonwood; syn. The leaves are triangular saw-toothed and "quake" in the breeze like an aspen leaf. ), please check the links and invasive species pages for additional resources. P. sargentii) has somewhat narrower leaves, 5–10 cm wide at the base. Many species and hybrids have wood with a variety of uses, including for matches and matchboxes. Cottonwood … They are also a popular habitat for various forms of local wildlife. Lombardy poplar (P. nigra) is a columnar form that is much planted. Flat stems make leaves dance in the gentlest of breezes. Populus deltoides is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. The diverse poplar family includes the quaking aspen, which boasts the widest range of any North American tree, and the Plains cottonwood, which was the only tree many early settlers met as they forged westward through America's prairies. The species is dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required). Landscape Attributes. Cottonwood trees are common in North America, Europe, and some parts of Asia. Twigs are greenish and smooth  turning a creamy yellow brown the second year. Latin name: Populus deltoides ssp. One of the best, pocket-sized tree identification manuals. Named after 19th century American explorer John C. Fremont, it is similar to the Eastern Cottonwood, differing mainly in the leaves having fewer, larger serrations on the leaf edge and small … Photos by K. Chayka taken in Ramsey County. Leaves of mature trees can display a light rust color on the side facing the ground. One of the cultivated male varieties, “Straight Plains” or ‘Jeronimus’ cottonwood keeps a straight main leader, is tolerant of many soil types and conditions, and can make a nice shade tree in landscapes that provide enough room for this tree to mature. Aigeiros Species: P. deltoides Binomial name Populus deltoides W.Bartram ex Marshall Native range Populus deltoides, the eastern cottonwood or necklace poplar, is a cottonwood poplar native to North America, growing throughout the eastern, central, Plains cottonwood ranges from Alberta east to Quebec and south to Rocky Mountain foothills, the Great Plains, Pennsylvania, the Texas panhandle, and New Mexico [ 55, 88, 147, 173, 194 ]. monifilera in the central US and Canada which is found in Minnesota and has leaves with a longer taper to the tip, usually 2 glands on a leaf, and usually hairy winter buds. glands where leaf … 195711 [syn. Cottonwood trees have long triangular-shaped leaves that measure up to 6 inches each and with a growth rate of almost 6 feet every year, they can easily reach heights of 40 meters (approx 130 feet) or more when completely matured. common cottonwood. SCIENTIFIC NAME: Populus angustifolia FAMILY: Salicaceae This tree in Colorado Narrowleaf cottonwood is large shade tree native to the high plains and higher elevations (up to 10,000′) of the Colorado and other Rocky Mountain states. Smooth, grayish bark becomes deeply grooved and darker as it ages. Usually at the base of the leaf near the stalk are 2 small glands. The ‘Highland’ cottonwood is a much smaller version of Populus sargentii. The current national champion plains cottonwood in Ravalli, Montana is believed to have been planted at the turn of the 20 th century, which clearly demonstrates the fast speed at which the species grows. It is not encouraged as an “urban” planting, however, in many of our higher communities, it is one of the more popular shade trees. Male hybrid selections such as Siouxland, as well as others, avoid the seeds and are frequently planted as field windbreaks and farm shelterbelts. Comment (max 1000 characters): Note: Comments or information about plants outside of Minnesota and neighboring states may not be posted because I’d like to keep the focus of this web site centered on Minnesota. Plains Cottonwood - Populus deltoides. Not only are plains cottonwoods known for rapid growth, but they are also known for their distinctive leaf shape, size and sound. Leaf blades lanceolate with cuneate bases, 2.5 or more times as long as wide, 4–11 cm long, glaucous below, with petioles 1/3 or less length of blade. Plains cottonwood has similar wood characteristics, but is not considered to be commercially valuable. Pick an image for a larger view. alternate. The leaves are broad, glossy, and light-green in color. -The heartwood typically rots from the larger limbs and trunk of a cottonwood. Besides the typical eastern variety (var. The leaf on the right, with the long petiole, is from a Populus deltoides, or Plains and eastern cottonwood. Eastern cottonwood is one of the few hardwood species that is planted and grown specifically for these purposes. Plains Cottonwood has green foliage throughout the season. The Plains Cottonwood is a triangular shaped broad-leafed (Populus sargentii a.k.a. The bark is smooth and white when the tree is young. Leaves are a vibrant shiny green, turning yellow in the autumn. with flat base, pointed tip. Insects and diseases that are found most frequently and/or that cause the most damage in our Canadian forests. ... Petioles are flattened on a plane perpendicular to the leaf and there are 2-5 finger-like projections (glands) at the point where the leaf blade meets the petiole. The statute was amended in 1961 to change the scientific name to: Populus deltoides variety monilifera. Help support this site ~ Information for sponsor opportunities. Where in Minnesota? Minnesota's champion tree cottonwood measures a whopping 10-ft diameter at breast height. deltoides), there is a western variety, plains cottonwood (var. deltoides (commonly called Eastern Cottonwood) in southern and eastern North America which has leaves with a short taper to the tip, 3 to 6 glands on the leaf, and usually hairless winter buds; subsp. The plains cottonwood is a large, fast-growing, short-lived tree of the Great Plains and eastern border of the Rocky Mountains. There are cottonwoods on the Great Plains today that were living when the great herds of bison still roamed the prairie. In the southern parts of the Prairie provinces; south to TexasNaturalized along many streams and rivers outside its natural rangeIn Ontario, plains cottonwood intergrades with eastern cottonwood. Capsules 3–6 mm long (Lesica 2012. Bark light brown, becoming furrowed. The large heart-shaped leaves turn yellow in fall. 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